The Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of IndependenceJUly4When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. —

Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislature.

He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states:
For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing taxes on us without our consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury:
For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses:
For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule in these colonies:
For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments:
For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare, is undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In Jefferson’s draft there is a part on slavery here

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor.

JOHN HANCOCK, President

Attested, CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary

New Hampshire
JOSIAH BARTLETT
WILLIAM WHIPPLE
MATTHEW THORNTON
Massachusetts-Bay
SAMUEL ADAMS
JOHN ADAMS
ROBERT TREAT PAINE
ELBRIDGE GERRY
Rhode Island
STEPHEN HOPKINS
WILLIAM ELLERY
Connecticut
ROGER SHERMAN
SAMUEL HUNTINGTON
WILLIAM WILLIAMS
OLIVER WOLCOTT
Georgia
BUTTON GWINNETT
LYMAN HALL
GEO. WALTON
Maryland
SAMUEL CHASE
WILLIAM PACA
THOMAS STONE
CHARLES CARROLL OF CARROLLTON
Virginia
GEORGE WYTHE
RICHARD HENRY LEE
THOMAS JEFFERSON
BENJAMIN HARRISON
THOMAS NELSON, JR.
FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE
CARTER BRAXTON.
New York
WILLIAM FLOYD
PHILIP LIVINGSTON
FRANCIS LEWIS
LEWIS MORRIS
Pennsylvania
ROBERT MORRIS
BENJAMIN RUSH
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
JOHN MORTON
GEORGE CLYMER
JAMES SMITH
GEORGE TAYLOR
JAMES WILSON
GEORGE ROSS
Delaware
CAESAR RODNEY
GEORGE READ
THOMAS M’KEAN
North Carolina
WILLIAM HOOPER
JOSEPH HEWES
JOHN PENN
South Carolina
EDWARD RUTLEDGE
THOMAS HEYWARD, JR.
THOMAS LYNCH, JR.
ARTHUR MIDDLETON
New Jersey
RICHARD STOCKTON
JOHN WITHERSPOON
FRANCIS HOPKINS
JOHN HART
ABRAHAM CLARK

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The Declaration of Independence was contributed by Pop Culture Fun Facts.

June 7 in Pop Culture History

07June 7
 

1692 (Earthquake) Port Royal, Jamaica, over 1,000 people were killed.

1753 – The British Museum was founded, starting the the collections of Sir Hans Sloane.

1755 (Earthquake) Tabriz, Iran

1893 – Mohandas Gandhi committed his first act of civil disobedience.

1914 – The Alliance was the first vessel to pass through the Panama Canal.

1954 – Rutgers Institute of Microbiology opened, it was the second dedicated microbiology laboratory in the world.

1955 – The $64,000 Question debuted on CBS.

1962 – Credit Suisse (then known as Schweizerische Kreditanstalt) opened the first drive-through bank, in Switzerland at St. Peter-Strasse 17, near Paradeplatz in downtown Zurich.

1975 #1 Hit June 7, 1975 – June 13, 1975: John DenverThank God I’m a Country Boy

1976 – The Tribal Rites of the New Saturday Night by journalist Nik Cohn was published in New York Magazine. It was the inspiration for the film Saturday Night Fever.

1981 – The Israeli Air Force destroyed Iraq’s Osiraq nuclear reactor during Operation Opera.

1985 – The Goonies and Perfect were released in theaters

1986 #1 Hit June 7, 1986 – June 13, 1986: MadonnaLive to Tell

1990 – Universal Studios Florida opened in Orlando, Florida.

1991 – City Slickers, Jungle Fever and Don’t Tell Mom the Babysitter’s Dead debuted in theaters

1996 – The Phantom and The Rock were released in theaters

2002 – Kim Possible premiered on The Disney Channel.

2014 #1 Hit June 7, 2014 – July 25, 2014: Iggy Azalea featuring Charli XCXFancy

June 7 in Pop Culture History was contributed by Pop Culture Fun Facts.

June 6 in Pop Culture History

06June 6

1844 – The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) was founded in London.

1882 (Cyclone) More than 100,000 people in Bombay, India were killed.

1889 – The Great Seattle Fire destroyed 25 blocks of downtown Seattle.

1912 (Volcano Eruption) Novarupta

1933 – America’s first drive-in opened near Camden, New Jersey, opened today. The first feature was a 1932 film, Wives Beware, and admission was 25 cents per car and an additional 25 cents per person.

1942 – The first parachute jump in the US using a nylon parachute was made by Adeline Gray, in Hartford, Connecticut.

1944 – D-Day: the day the Allied powers crossed the English Channel and landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, turning the tide of the war against Germany.

1948 – BBC Television began broadcasting again for the first time since 1939.

1964 #1 Hit June 6, 1964 – June 26, 1964: The Dixie CupsChapel of Love

1964 – The Rolling Stones made their American TV debut on The Hollywood Palace.

1971 – The Ed Sullivan Show aired for the final time on CBS.

1983 – Reading Rainbow premiered on PBS

1986 – My Little Pony, Invaders From Mars, Raw Deal and Space Camp were released in theaters

1987 #1 Hit June 6, 1987 – June 12, 1987: Kim WildeYou Keep Me Hangin’ On

1997 – Farrah Fawcett made a bizarre appearance on the Late Show With David Letterman. She went on long tirades and story-telling sprees that made little to no sense and was distracted by blinking lights in the studio.

1997 – Con Air debuted in theaters

1998 #1 Hit June 6, 1998 – September 4, 1998: Brandy & MonicaThe Boy Is Mine

1998 – Sex and The City premiered on HBO

2002 – A near-Earth asteroid, estimated at 30 feet in diameter, exploded over the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Libya.

2005 – In Gonzales v. Raich, the US Supreme Court upheld a federal law banning cannabis, including medical marijuana.

2008 – You Don’t Mess with the Zohan and Kung Fu Panda were released in theaters

2014 – Edge of Tomorrow and The Fault in our Stars debuted in theaters

2015 #1 Hit June 6, 2015 – July 24, 2015: Taylor Swift featuring Kendrick LamarBad Blood

 2002 – A near-Earth asteroid, estimated at 30 feet in diameter, exploded over the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Libya.

 2005 – In Gonzales v. Raich, the US Supreme Court upheld a federal law banning cannabis, including medical marijuana.

June 6 in Pop Culture History was contributed by Pop Culture Fun Facts.

June 5 in Pop Culture History

05June 5

1851 – Harriet Beecher Stowe’s anti-slavery serial, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (or Life Among the Lowly) began a ten-month run in the National Era, an abolitionist newspaper.

1883 – The first regularly scheduled Orient Express left Paris.

1933 – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt took the United States off of the “Gold Standard”, a result of the Great Depression. President Nixon, in 1971, completed the transition when he announced that the United States would no longer convert dollars to gold at a fixed value, $35 an ounce at that time.

1954 #1 Hit June 5, 1954 – August 6, 1954: Kitty KallenLittle Things Mean A Lot

1956 – Elvis Presley introduced his new single, Hound Dog, on The Milton Berle Show

1961 #1 Hit June 5, 1961 – June 18, 1961: Roy OrbisonRunning Scared

1966 – The Beatles had a taped appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, debuting music videos for Rain and Paperback Writer.

1968 – Robert F. Kennedy was shot and killed at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian.

1977 – The Apple II went in sale.

1981 – The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that five people in Los Angeles, California, had a rare form of pneumonia seen only in patients with weakened immune systems, in what turns out to be the first recognized cases of AIDS.

1987 – The Untouchables, Benji The Hunted and Harry and the Hendersons were released in theaters

1989 – The Tiananmen Square protests ended violently in Beijing by the People’s Liberation Army, with at least 241 dead. Many western journalists had errantly speculated that the army would not fight against the people.

1992 – Patriot Games debuted in theaters

1995 – Singled Out with host Chris Hardwick premiered on MTV

1998 – The Truman Show was released in theaters

2009 – Land of the Lost and The Hangover debuted in theaters

2011 – Teen Wolf premiered on MTV

ris Hardwick premiered on MTV

 2011 – Teen Wolf premiered on MTV

June 5 in Pop Culture History was contributed by Pop Culture Fun Facts.

June 4 in Pop Culture History

04June 4
 

1784 – Elisabeth Thible was the first woman to fly in an untethered hot air balloon, flying for about 45 minutes.

1812 – Following Louisiana’s admittance as a US state, the Louisiana Territory was renamed the Missouri Territory.

1876 – The Transcontinental Express arrived in San Francisco, California, in only 83 hours and 39 minutes after leaving New York City.

1895 – Joseph Lee was issued a patent (#540,553) for a “bread crumbing machine”

1912 – Massachusetts became the first state of the United States to call for a minimum wage, although it was non-specific, and for children under 18 and women.

1919 – The US Congress approved the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed voting for women, and sent it to the individual states for ratification.

1937 – The first shopping carts were introduced at the Humpty Dumpty Supermarket in Oklahoma City, created by the store’s owner, Sylvan Goldman.

1957 – The first U.S. commercial long-distance coal slurry pipeline, 108 miles long, began delivery from a coal mine, from the Georgetown Preparation Plant of the Hanna Coal Company in Cadiz, Ohio, to the Cleveland Illuminating Company power station, in Eastlake, Ohio.

1974 – During a ‘Ten Cent Beer Night’ inebriated Cleveland Indians fans started misbehaving, causing the game to be forfeited to the Texas Rangers.

1976 – ‘The gig that changed the world.’ A few dozen people saw the debut of the Sex Pistols at the Lesser Free Trade Hall in Manchester, England.

1982 – Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and Poltergeist were released in theaters

1986 – Jonathan Pollard pled guilty to espionage for selling top secret United States military intelligence to Israel.

1989 – The ‘Tank Man’ halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour after the Tienanmen Square protests of 1989.

2004 – Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban debuted in theaters

2005 #1 Hit June 4, 2005 – July 1, 2005: Mariah CareyWe Belong Together

June 4 in Pop Culture History was contributed by Pop Culture Fun Facts.

June 3 in Pop Culture History

03June 3

1621 – The Dutch West India Company receives a charter for New Netherland (now eastern US) and the Caribbean.

1888 – The poem Casey at the Bat by Ernest Lawrence Thayer, was published in the San Francisco Examiner.

1889 – The first long-distance electric power transmission line in the United States was completed, 14 miles between a generator at Willamette Falls and downtown Portland, Oregon.

1948 – The 200-inch reflecting Hale telescope at the Palomar Mountain Observatory in California was dedicated.

1956 – Santa Cruz, CA authorities announced a total ban on rock and roll at public gatherings, calling the music “Detrimental to both the health and morals of our youth and community.”

1965 – Major Edward White II, a Gemini 4 crew member, performed the first American spacewalk.

1967 #1 Hit June 3, 1967 – June 30, 1967: Aretha FranklinRespect

1968 – Valerie Solanas attempted to assassinate Andy Warhol by shooting him three times.

1972 #1 Hit June 3, 1972 – June 9, 1972: The Staple SingersI’ll Take You There

1978 #1 Hit June 3, 1978 – June 9, 1978: Johnny Mathis and Deniece WilliamsToo Much, Too Little, Too Late

1983 – Psycho II was released in theaters

1988 – Big and Funny Farm debuted in theaters

1989 #1 Hit June 3, 1989 – June 9, 1989: Michael DamianRock On

1992 – Presidential candidate Bill Clinton appeared on the Arsenio Hall Show and played the saxophone.

1994 – Renaissance Man debuted in theaters

1995 #1 Hit June 3, 1995 – July 7, 1995: Bryan AdamsHave You Ever Really Loved A Woman

1996 – Zenith introduced the first HDTV-compatible front projection TV in the U.S.

1989 – The government of China sent troops to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.

2006 #1 Hit June 3, 2006 – June 16, 2006: Chamillionaire featuring Krayzie BoneRidin’

2010 – Long suspected of his involvement in the 2005 disappearance of Natalee Holloway, Joran van der Sloot was arrested for the murder of Stephany Flores in Lima, Peru.

2011 – X-Men: First Class was released in theaters

June 3 in Pop Culture History was contributed by Pop Culture Fun Facts.

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